Roberts warned that answering questions would raise the "appearance of impropriety" and prejudice her views in future cases before the Court.
Court structure and organization Types of courts There are many different types of courts and many ways to classify and describe them. Basic distinctions must be made between criminal and civil courts, between courts of general jurisdiction and those of limited jurisdiction, and between appellate and trial courts.
There are also constitutionalfederal, and transnational courts. Criminal courts Criminal courts deal with persons accused of committing a crimedeciding whether they are guilty and, if so, determining the consequences they shall suffer.
The prosecution of alleged offenders is generally pursued in the name of the public e. The public is represented by an official such as a district attorney often called a prosecutorprocurator, or police officer.
Although courts are also agencies of the state, they are neutral in criminal proceedings, favouring neither the prosecution nor the defense. The impartiality of the court is strongly reinforced where juries are used to decide the guilt or innocence of the defendant. The role of the criminal court in civil-law systems is quite different from its role in common-law ones.
Civil-law countries assign a more active role to the judge and a more passive role to counsel. Instead of being passive recipients of evidence produced by the prosecution and the defense, judges in civil-law systems often direct the presentation of evidence and even order that certain evidence be produced.
Thus, procedure in civil-law systems is considered inquisitorial. Judges in this system have an independent responsibility to discover the facts. In the common-law courts, adversary procedures tend to prevail; the lawyers for both sides bear primary responsibility for producing evidence and do most of the questioning of witnesses.
Advocates of the adversarial system hold that a just outcome is most likely to result when all possible relevant information—good tending to exonerate and bad tending to incriminate —is placed before an impartial adjudicator the judge or the jury. Self-interest motivates both the defense and the prosecution to provide all possible evidence relevant to its side of the case.
The adversarial system, and its associated conception of justiceis a pillar of the common-law tradition, as evidenced in the U. If a defendant is found guilty, he is sentenced, again according to law and within limits predetermined by legislation.
The objective of most punishment is not so much to wreak vengeance upon the offender as to rehabilitate him and to deter others from committing similar acts. Hence, the most common sentences are fines, short terms of imprisonment, and probation which allows the offender freedom under state supervision.
In extremely serious cases, the goal may be to prevent the offender from committing further crimes, which may call for a long term of imprisonment e. During the last third of the 20th century, however, the death penalty began to disappear from many criminal codes throughout the world; nonetheless, it remains in effect and is imposed widely in several countries, including the United States, Iran, and China.
The public is not ordinarily a party to the litigation as it is in criminal proceedingsfor its interest is limited to providing just and acceptable rules for making decisions and a forum where the dispute can be impartially and peacefully resolved.JERUSALEM – CNN's extensive coverage this week of the annual Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca is a defeat for evangelical Christians and proves it is only a question of time before Islam will be "shining all over the world," according to Muslim terrorists in .
The Supreme Court and its justices should make unbiased decisions based on justice, the framework of the constitution, and the will of the people; leaving their party and their personal political beliefs out of it.
Did conservatives just win a battle in the campus-speech wars, or lose one on religious liberty?The Wisconsin Supreme Court ordered Marquette University to reinstate conservative poli-sci professor John McAdams immediately and restore all his privileges.
The Nine: Inside the Secret World of the Supreme Court [Jeffrey Toobin] on ashio-midori.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Acclaimed journalist Jeffrey Toobin takes us into the chambers of the most important—and secret—legal body in our country.
Gordon Wayne Watts' personal website: Legal Info for Terri Schiavo; FLA Elections Problems; Star Trek info - Lakeland voter and long-time Republican, Gordon Watts, upholds the 'Rule of Law' in Florida by way of a lawsuit, which demands that the State of Florida comply with and enforce the state law requiring a recount when a .
I think all Supreme Court decisions that do not follow the text of the Constitution directly involve some sort of bias based on the world view of the Justices. The Constitution is a rather short document that comes far from covering all possibilities.