Although women might crave higher degrees of autonomy and sexual expression, their lives still fit within the boundaries of three roles: Set loose in the topsy-turvy world of Carnival, her characters demonstrate the active, complicated game required of women seeking to secure personal happiness. Late Stuart society, Behn seems to lament, offered no place to the sexually free, libertine woman.
The Restoration Literary reactions to the political climate For some, the restoration of King Charles II in led many to a painful revaluation of the political hopes and millenarian expectations bred during two decades of civil war and republican government.
For others, it excited the desire to celebrate kingship and even to turn the events of the new reign into signs of a divinely ordained scheme of things. Violent political conflict may have ceased, but the division between royalists and republicans still ran through literature of the period.
Indeed, it is hard to conceive of a single literary culture that could include, on the one hand, John Milton and John Bunyan and, on the other, John Wilmot, earl of Rochesterand John Dryden. Yet these and other such opposites were writing at the same time. Yet Puritans and republicans had not disappeared.
However, they still formed an important body of opinion within the nation. For erstwhile supporters of the Commonwealth, the experience of defeat needed time to be absorbed, and fresh strategies had to be devised to encounter the challenge of hostile times.
Much caustic and libelous political satire was written during the reigns of Charles II and James II and because printing was subject to repressive legal constrictions circulated anonymously and widely in manuscript. The defeated republicans The greatest prose controversialist of the pre years, John Miltondid not return to that mode but, in his enforced retirement from the public scene, devoted himself to his great poems of religious struggle and convictionParadise Lostrevised and Paradise Regained and Samson Agonistes both Edmund Ludlowlike Hutchinson one of the regicides, fled to Switzerland inwhere he compiled his own Memoirs.
Some autobiographers adjusted their testimony themselves in the light of later developments. It testifies graphically to the force, both terrifying and consolatory, with which the biblical word could work upon the consciousness of a scantily educated, but overwhelmingly responsive, 17th-century believer.
The resulting work with its second part appearing in combines a careful exposition of the logical structure of the Calvinist scheme of salvation with a delicate responsiveness to the ways in which his experience of his own world of the life of the road, of the arrogance of the rich, of the rhythms of contemporary speech can be deployed to render with a new vividness the strenuous testing the Christian soul must undergo.
His achievement owes scarcely anything to the literary culture of his time, but his masterpiece has gained for itself a readership greater than that achieved by any other English 17th-century work with the exception of the King James Bible.
In the 17th and 18th centuries there were chapbook versions, at two or three pence each, for the barely literate, and there were elegant editions for pious gentlefolk.
It was the favourite work of both the self-improving artisan and the affluent tradesman. Yet it was below the horizon of polite literary taste. Perhaps Bunyan, the uneducated son of a tinker, would have found such condescension appropriate. This work is also rich in disdainful portraits of those who are more than satisfied with the ways of the world: The Life and Death of Mr.
Badmanwhich, with graphic local detail, remorselessly tracks the sinful temptations of everyday life, and The Holy Wara grandiose attempt at religious mythmaking interlaced with contemporary political allusions.
Richard Baxtera Nonconformist cleric who, although enduring persecution afterwas by instinct and much of his practice a reconciler, published untiringly on religious issues. Soon after the death of his wife, he wrote the moving Breviatea striking combination of exemplary narrative and unaffectedly direct reporting of the nature of their domestic life.
His finest work, however, is the Reliquiae Baxterianae published infive years after his deathan autobiography that is also an eloquent defense of the Puritan impulse in the 17th-century Christian tradition.
In the aftermath of the Restoration, there was much formulaic satirizing of Puritans, especially on the stage.
This was a massively popular work, with an influence stretching well into the 18th century when Samuel Johnsonfor example, greatly admired it and William Hogarth illustrated some scenes from it.
It reads partly as a consummately destructive act of revenge upon those who had usurped power in the previous two decades, but although it is easy to identify what Hudibras opposes, it is difficult to say what, if anything, it affirms.
Although much admired by royalist opinion, it shows no wish to celebrate the authority or person restored inand its brazenly undignified use of rhyming tetrameters mirrors, mocks, and lacerates rooted human follies far beyond the power of one political reversal to obliterate.
Writings of the royalists Royalists also resorted to biography and autobiography to record their experiences of defeat and restoration. Three of the most intriguing are by women: The latter two were both written in the late s but as private texts, with no apparent thought of publication.TERM PAPER Gender Economics of Restoration and Aphra Behn INTRODUCTION The Restoration era allowed women to step into what was historically an essentially masculine space, that of literary and theatrical production.
A responsive, refreshed, and media-rich revision of the best-selling anthology in the field. The most trusted anthology for complete works and helpful editorial apparatus. The Rover study guide contains a biography of Aphra Behn, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis of the play.
About The Rover The Rover Summary. The Rover plays are among the most widely read of Behn’s large body of literary works. Part I was tremendously successful during the seventeenth century and was frequently revived throughout the. A Patriarchic Society in Aphra Behn's The Rover Essay - A Patriarchic Society in Aphra Behn's The Rover In her play The Rover, Aphra Behn uses the treatment of women to suggest the presence of a strong patriarchic society and what harm can become of it.
Willmore, the Rover, arrives in Naples where he meets his fellow exiles Blunt, Frederick, and Belvile. They begin rather aimless adventures in quest of pleasure.
"Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested." - Francis Bacon These are titles on The Well-Educated Mind list by Susan Wise Bauer. Blue highlighted titles have been read and reviewed by me. + free ebooks online. Did you know that you can help us produce ebooks by proof-reading just one page a day? Go to: Distributed Proofreaders. TERM PAPER Gender Economics of Restoration and Aphra Behn INTRODUCTION The Restoration era allowed women to step into what was historically an essentially masculine space, that of literary and theatrical production.
Although Willmore is an example of.