The primary language of Babylon and the administrative and cultural language of the Sassanid Empire at that time was Eastern Middle Aramaicwhich included three main dialects: Although having fewer adherents, Manichaeism won the support of many high-ranking political figures. With the assistance of the Sasanian Empire, Mani began missionary expeditions. After failing to win the favour of the next generation of Persian royalty, and incurring the disapproval of the Zoroastrian clergy, Mani is reported to have died in prison awaiting execution by the Persian Emperor Bahram I.
Earth and Earth science View of the Earthtaken in by the crew of Apollo Earth is the only planet known to support life, and its natural features are the subject of many fields of scientific research. Within the solar systemit is third closest to the sun; it is the largest terrestrial planet and the fifth largest overall.
Its most prominent climatic features are its two large polar regions, two relatively narrow temperate zones, and The nature of the three major wide equatorial tropical to subtropical region. The remainder consists of continents and islands, with most of the inhabited land in the Northern Hemisphere.
Earth has evolved through geological and biological processes that have left traces of the original conditions.
The outer surface is divided into several gradually migrating tectonic plates. The interior remains active, with a thick layer of plastic mantle and an iron-filled core that generates a magnetic field.
This iron core is composed of a solid inner phase, and a fluid outer phase. Convective motion in the core generates electric currents through dynamo action, and these, in turn, generate the geomagnetic field.
The atmospheric conditions have been significantly altered from the original conditions by the presence of life-forms,  which create an ecological balance that stabilizes the surface conditions.
Despite the wide regional variations in climate by latitude and other geographic factors, the long-term average global climate is quite stable during interglacial periods,  and variations of a degree or two of average global temperature have historically had major effects on the ecological balance, and on the actual geography of the Earth.
Geology Geology is the science and study of the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth. The field of geology encompasses the study of the composition, structurephysical propertiesdynamics, and history of Earth materialsand the processes by which they are formed, moved, and changed.
The field is a major academic disciplineand is also important for mineral and hydrocarbon extraction, knowledge about and mitigation of natural hazardssome Geotechnical engineering fields, and understanding past climates and environments.
Geological evolution[ edit ] Three types of geological plate tectonic boundaries. The geology of an area evolves through time as rock units are deposited and inserted and deformational processes change their shapes and locations. Rock units are first emplaced either by deposition onto the surface or intrude into the overlying rock.
Deposition can occur when sediments settle onto the surface of the Earth and later lithify into sedimentary rockor when as volcanic material such as volcanic ash or lava flows, blanket the surface. Igneous intrusions such as batholithslaccolithsdikesand sillspush upwards into the overlying rock, and crystallize as they intrude.
Deformation typically occurs as a result of horizontal shortening, horizontal extensionor side-to-side strike-slip motion.
These structural regimes broadly relate to convergent boundariesdivergent boundariesand transform boundariesrespectively, between tectonic plates.
History of the Earth and Evolution An animation showing the movement of the continents from the separation of Pangaea until the present day.
Earth is estimated to have formed 4. Initially molten, the outer layer of the Earth cooled, resulting in the solid crust. Outgassing and volcanic activity produced the primordial atmosphere.
Condensing water vapormost or all of which came from ice delivered by cometsproduced the oceans and other water sources. The present era is classified as part of a mass extinction eventthe Holocene extinction event, the fastest ever to have occurred. The thin layer of gases that envelops the Earth is held in place by gravity.
Air is mostly nitrogenoxygenwater vaporwith much smaller amounts of carbon dioxide, argon, etc. The atmospheric pressure declines steadily with altitude. The ozone layer plays an important role in depleting the amount of ultraviolet UV radiation that reaches the surface. The atmosphere also retains heat during the night, thereby reducing the daily temperature extremes.
Terrestrial weather occurs almost exclusively in the lower part of the atmosphereand serves as a convective system for redistributing heat. These currents help to moderate the differences in temperature between winter and summer in the temperate zones. Also, without the redistributions of heat energy by the ocean currents and atmosphere, the tropics would be much hotter, and the polar regions much colder.
Lightning Weather can have both beneficial and harmful effects. Extremes in weather, such as tornadoes or hurricanes and cyclonescan expend large amounts of energy along their paths, and produce devastation. Surface vegetation has evolved a dependence on the seasonal variation of the weather, and sudden changes lasting only a few years can have a dramatic effect, both on the vegetation and on the animals which depend on its growth for their food.
Climate is a measure of the long-term trends in the weather.
Based on historical records, the Earth is known to have undergone drastic climate changes in the past, including ice ages. A tornado in central Oklahoma The climate of a region depends on a number of factors, especially latitude.
A latitudinal band of the surface with similar climatic attributes forms a climate region. There are a number of such regions, ranging from the tropical climate at the equator to the polar climate in the northern and southern extremes. Thus, at any given time during the summer or winter, one part of the Earth is more directly exposed to the rays of the sun.The controversial nature of complicated grief.
You do not have to study bereavement theory for very long before you meet lively discussions around complicated grief, often referred to as CG, an abbreviation we will adopt here. acquired trait: A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation (for example, the large.
First published in , Nature is the world’s leading multidisciplinary science journal. Nature publishes the finest peer-reviewed research that drives ground-breaking discovery, and is read by.
Master Mason Degree SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DEGREE. This Degree is the crown of the Blue Lodge. It is the culmination of all that has been taught to the candidate in the two preceding ceremonies. The best science and technology jobs plus careers advice and news. How much live action actually occurs in each major sport?
Note: if you’ve found this and want to make a comment about how football is such a more exiting sport than soccer, or think this is some sort of anti-football post then you’re missing the point. This is about LIVE ACTION stats and the viewing experience.
If you love Cricket, you’ll sit there for .