The recent pace of population growth has resulted in renewed discussion about the role of immigration, and the future size of the population. Intelligence on how fast the population is growing, and to what size it may grow given particular assumptionsis crucial for decision-makers and planners who need to consider implications for infrastructure, services, the broader economy and the environment. This article aims to inform the discussion on Australia's population growth by examining the composition of growth in recent years and the types of migration contributing to this growth. It also presents various scenarios for Australia's future population.
A substitute, or someone or something that represents another person or thing in their stead. Even the name puts our moral intuitions at ease. So what is it about commercial surrogacy, where a woman is paid to gestate a baby, that we take issue with?
The most common type of surrogacy is gestational surrogacy, wherein the commissioning parent s uses IVF to create an embryo from their own or donor gametes and transfer it into the uterus of the gestational surrogate.
With this method, the surrogate mother does not provide any genetic material. People that seek out surrogacy commonly include infertile heterosexual couples and homosexual couples desiring children of their own.
The demand for surrogacy has heightened in recent years following changes to child protection policy, which lead to drastic falls in the number of children for adoption and stricter criteria implemented by overseas countries regarding the age and family types who can adopt.
The options are further limited by the fact that surrogacy is illegal for single people and same-sex couples in certain states like Western Australia and South Australia. The increasing number of roadblocks to accessing surrogacy has left many desperate couples resorting to offshore commercial surrogacy.
Some think it is inescapably a form of exploitation of women, reducing the surrogate to her base reproductive capability, and effectively turning her into a walking incubator.
In a similar vein, some argue that pregnancy belongs in a special moral realm, and that by bringing market forces into the arena we degrade the intrinsic value of creating life. Maybe there are some things in life which simply should not come with a price tag.
Commercial surrogacy also raises objections that intersect with other ethical and societal issues. Some assume that a child is best raised with both a father and a mother figure, and therefore believe that enabling same-sex couples to access surrogacy would be harmful for children.
However, existing Australian law allows same-sex couples to adopt, and it is difficult to see why, on the grounds of concern for the child, surrogacy would be different. Furthermore, the assumption that same-sex parenting is harmful to children is not borne-out in the evidence, and so we do not see this as a relevant argument against commercial surrogacy.
Another objection to commercial surrogacy is that it would change the nature of the family unit by involving the surrogate as a third parent figure. It is also possible for women to become single parents through the help of donor sperm and IVF.
These ethical objections may be why Australia has made commercial surrogacy illegal.
But given that no one has ever been prosecuted on these grounds, the legal threat is a poor deterrence. Undesirable consequences The supply of altruistic surrogates in Australia falls well short of demand, driving Australian couples to search for surrogates overseas.
Most are travelling to countries like India or Thailand where the process was until recently legal, cheaper, and poorly regulated.
It is this scene that has become inextricably associated with commercial surrogacy.This International Trends report provides an annual overview of changes and broader developments in higher education around the world.
We have selected the most significant changes affecting international student recruitment and study abroad, international research collaborations and international expansion in the form of branch campuses.
Posts in category: Features. Non-Health for Non-Persons: Rohingya Muslims in Crisis Salwa is a fourth year medical student at the University of New South Wales. and a public health enthusiast, especially interested in health disparities and programme interventions.
In a remarkably insightful and prescient essay entitled ‘When and why.
Trends that have affected Australia’s population include population growth, age structure and spacial distribution. Population growth is an important trend that affects the population of Australia. Over the past years, Australia’s population has boomed. Environmental knowledge, attitude and practices of student teachers.
human population growth, food production issues, human diseases (e.g. malaria), overconsumption, chemicalization/ and village chiefs to discuss environmental and social trends as well as ecological specifics. student and I know I had her worried on more than one occasion as I these provide a travelogue on how each essay came about: what I was thinking, seeing, and remembering at the time; why a puzzle compelled on instrumentally rational market behavior does not capture all the eco- nomic activities of women” – unless, I might 5/5(1).
Term Paper Warehouse has free essays, term papers, and book reports for students on almost every research topic.