Real world writing applications standards

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Real world writing applications standards

Quite a bit, it turns out. Uber and other location-based mobile applications rely on GPS to link users with available cars nearby.

real world writing applications standards

This example highlights an ongoing controversy about the value of basic science and scholarship. How much are marketplace innovations, which drive broad economic prosperity, actually linked to basic scientific research? Plenty of tax dollars and other funds go toward the research performed in academic centers, government labs and other facilities.

But what kind of return are we as a society recouping on this large investment in new discoveries? Does scientific research reliably lead to usable practical advances?

Not surprisingly, there are strongly opposing viewpoints on the value of basic research. For example, after World War II the founder of the National Science Foundation characterized scientific research as a valuable fund of new knowledge from which applications could be drawn.

Related is the idea that marketplace innovation rarely relies on the work of universities or government labs. If one perspective is more accurate than the other, it has major implications for policy — specifically, the extent to which governments fund scientific research. In the meantime, federal spending on basic research as a share of GDP or a share of the federal budget has been in decline over the last several decades.

So we designed a study to investigate the links between patentable inventions and scientific research.

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How many degrees of separation? Past research on this topic often studied whether scientists themselves at universities and other research institutions produced patents or started businesses; that would support a direct link between scientists and application. Moreover, a given discovery may lead to other research that is ultimately applied, meaning there can be a highly indirect link between research and the innovations that it supports in the end.

To account for direct and indirect links between basic research and related applications, we looked for connections between all 4. Most patents are filed by businesses, representing potentially marketable innovations.

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And most research articles flow from universities and other research settings. So these measures help trace not only links from science to invention, but also the flows of knowledge from nonprofit research institutions to firms.

Only in the past decade has the large volume of data required to run such a study been available in accessible form; our research has benefited directly from the Big Data era.

This method harnesses the fact that both papers and patents provide references to work on which they are based. While some scientific papers are never cited by any future work, among research articles that receive at least one citation, a full 80 percent could be linked forward to a future patent.

Meanwhile, 61 percent of patents linked backward to at least one research article. In fact, most papers and patents across scientific fields were at a distance of only two to four items from the other domain, on average.

Not surprisingly, the average distance from patents of scientific works in more abstract fields like mathematics was higher than that in more naturally applicable domains like computer science, where the average distance was closer to one, suggesting more direct links between research and application.

Importantly, the patents with the most impact by measures connected to market valuation tended to be the most science-intensive, relying more directly on scientific advances than other patents did. Overall, our findings suggest that basic research matters. Scientific advances are not like the proverbial tree falling in the forest with no one around to hear.

Rather, looking across the corpus of science, we find widespread connections to future patents — especially to the most valuable patents.

That is, how can scientists best choose what to study in the first place? In contrast, our results showed that research that was closest to application was more likely to have impact within science itself.

So a focus on real-world problems may boost not only direct applications but also new science, bringing potentially profound advances in our understanding of the world.

Research exists along two continua: How much is it driven by curiosity and how much by a search for real-world solutions?A MiddleWeb Blog. What do STEM teachers do? According to U.S. News and World Report, STEM teachers pose problems and combine problem solving with project-based learning across work together with students on activities to develop students’ critical thinking, communication, assessment, and inquiry skills. (GSO) is a free, public website providing information and resources necessary to help meet the educational needs of students. The Texas Performance Standards Project (TPSP) comprises a set of performance standards, curricula, and assessments for differentiating instruction and deepening academic learning.

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