Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a cruel disease.
Published online Sep Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Ltd, provided the work is properly attributed. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Schizophrenia is a disabling psychiatric illness associated with disruptions in cognition, emotion, and psychosocial and occupational functioning.
This critical review of the literature was conducted to identify the common approaches to psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia. Treatment planning and outcomes were also explored and discussed to better understand the effects of these interventions in terms of person-focused perspectives such as their perceived quality of life and satisfaction and their acceptability and adherence to treatments or services received.
Their reference lists were screened, and studies were selected if they met the criteria of using a randomized controlled trial or systematic review design, giving a clear description of the interventions used, and having a study sample of people primarily diagnosed with schizophrenia.
Five main approaches to psychosocial intervention had been used for the treatment of schizophrenia: However, the comparative effects between these five approaches have not been well studied; thus, we are not able to clearly understand the superiority of any of these interventions.
To conclude, current approaches to psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia have their strengths and weaknesses, particularly indicating limited evidence on long-term effects.
Psychosocial interventions are indicated for patients with schizophrenia and the characteristics that follow as an adjunct to antipsychotic medication: To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. Of all the biologically determined psychosocial sensitivities believed to contribute to the development of schizophrenia and psychosis, the most subtle are negative emotional experiences. It is especially the family with high "expressed emotion" for which there is the most research studies and data. Psychosocial Examinination in Schizophrenia This Essay Psychosocial Examinination in Schizophrenia and other 64,+ term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on ashio-midori.com Autor: review • November 14, • Essay • 1, Words (8 Pages) • Views.
To improve the longer-term outcomes of people with schizophrenia, future treatment strategies should focus on risk identification, early intervention, person-focused therapy, partnership with family caregivers, and the integration of evidence-based psychosocial interventions into existing services.
Although psychopharmacological treatment is essential and considered the mainstay for achieving better physical and cognitive functioning in schizophrenia, several limitations such as unavoidable adverse effects eg, acute extrapyramidal symptoms and other neurocognitive impairments in long-term treatment with these drugs and medication refusal or noncompliance have reduced its efficacy in the treatment of schizophrenia.
A critical review of the common approaches to psychosocial intervention for people with schizophrenia was therefore performed. First, the concepts and research evidence of five main approaches to psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia ie, cognitive therapy, psychoeducation programs, family intervention, social skills training programs, and assertive community treatment [ACT] are discussed.
Second, this review provides a summary of and discussion on the relative efficacy of the most commonly used approaches to psychosocial interventions in terms of their effect sizes on their most commonly reported patient outcomes. Third, the importance of person-focused perspectives such as quality of life, patient satisfaction and acceptability, and adherence to treatment and its use in research on psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia are also discussed.
Finally, we have made several recommendations for best practice in schizophrenia treatment on the basis of this review, as well as another related review published in Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment.
Psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia Recent research and systematic reviews suggest that both pharmacological and psychosocial treatment, offered early to people presenting with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, can improve their prognosis and even help prevent their illness chronicity.
The five categories are cognitive therapy mainly cognitive behavioral therapy [CBT] and cognitive remediation therapypsychoeducation programs, family intervention, social skills and other coping skillstraining programs, and case management or ACT.
Even though the process of these interventions is not always described clearly, each type of intervention model has an individual set of goals and objectives, as well as a treatment agenda, and all have been found to be effective in improving different aspects of the functioning of patients with schizophrenia.
However, it should be noted that there are difficulties in implementing these interventions in everyday clinical practice in community care settings. First, staff may not be adequately trained to implement the intervention. Second, as these interventions need to be implemented for 9—12 months, there may be insufficient resources to deliver and evaluate them adequately.
All reference lists of the selected articles were also searched to identify further relevant trials. Finally, there were 92 articles included in this review, including 25 for psychoeducation, 22 for CBT, 15 for family intervention, 10 for cognitive remediation therapy, and 7 for social skills training.
Among them, 15 were review articles. Cognitive therapy CBT Developed in the s, CBT has been considered an effective therapy for depressive disorder for several decades; this therapy and some of its well-established techniques have eventually come to be used as a promising treatment modality for individuals with schizophrenia whose psychotic symptoms are not controlled by medication.
Although some studies have found CBT to have positive benefits in terms of reduction of positive symptoms and recovery time over the course of 9—12 months in comparison with standard care and a few psychological approaches, it has not yet shown promising evidence of reduction of negative and persistent severe psychotic symptoms for people with schizophrenia, particularly over a longer-term ie, 2-year follow-up.
Although the effect sizes for improving the positive symptoms in more recent randomized controlled trials — were mainly very low to medium ie, 0. Gumley et al 28 showed the significant effect of CBT in identifying prodromal signs of relapse from schizophrenia during a month follow-up, whereas Durham et al 29 found a modest effect in relapse prevention and reduction of positive symptoms with newly trained and minimally supervised therapists for psychosis.
Overall, the research evidence on CBT favors its use among people with schizophrenia, and it is recommended in the United Kingdom and United States that it be included as the main approach to interventions for schizophrenia.
A specific technique used in CBT for patients with schizophrenia is the normalizing rationale, in which the patient with poor coping ability and social withdrawal from mental health services is empowered and facilitated to collaboratively develop effective coping strategies, leading to symptomatic improvement.
However, there were no significant differences on relapse, rehospitalization, or level of functioning between groups. Similar to the findings of the recent systematic reviews, 21 — 2326 the evidence identified for the effectiveness of CBT in terms of controlling positive, negative, and mood-related symptoms and relapse prevention, particularly in terms of the specificity and durability of these intended benefits, is not conclusive or consistent.
As Tarrier et al 31 and Turkington et al 32 point out, these requirements exclude a high proportion of more disabled patients and limit its widespread dissemination into routine practice.Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a serious brain disorder.
It is a disease that makes it difficult for a person to tell the difference between real and It is a disease that makes it difficult for a person to tell the difference between real and/5(1). Psychosocial Factors in the Neurobiology of Schizophrenia: A Selective Review Caroline Lim, 1 MSc, Siow-Ann Chong, MBBS, M Med (Psychiatry), FAMS, Richard SE Keefe, 2 PhD 1 Department of Early Psychosis Intervention, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore.
Running head: PSYCHOSOCIAL EXAMININATION IN SCHIZOPHRENIA DAVID HELFGOTT: A PSYCHOSOCIAL EXAMININATION IN SCHIZOPHRENIA Abstract This research paper examines the cinematic biographical adaptation of musical child prodigy David Helfgott.
Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a serious brain disorder. It is a disease that makes it difficult for a person to tell the difference between real and It is a disease that makes it difficult for a person to tell the difference between real and/5(1).
Psychosocial Rehabilitation for Schizophrenia Psychosocial rehabilitation is a learning based approach using a token economy and social skill training to help patients with schizophrenia develop adaptive behaviors (Nevid, Rathus, & Green, ).
Culturally Adapted Psychosocial Interventions for Schizophrenia The call for examining the potential efficacy of culturally adapted psychotherapeutic interventions for schizophrenia has recently gained traction (American Psychological Association, , Ferrer-Wreder et al., , U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services, , Vega et.