The impact of the reduction in income tax — which will mainly benefit the most comfortably off maximum tax rate cut from
Columbia University The federal government of the United States was created by the Constitution, which went into operation in when the first Congress convened and George Washington took the oath of office as president.
The government is called federal because it was formed by a compact the Constitution among 13 political units the states. These states agreed to give up part of their independence, or sovereignty, in order to form a central authority and submit themselves to it.
Thus, what was essentially a group of 13 separate countries under the Articles of Confederation united to form one nation under the Constitution When the Declaration of Independence was issued init used the term United States of America.
Until the Constitution was adopted and ratified, however, the 13 states did not really form one nation.
They each held onto so many powers individually, including conducting foreign policy and trade negotiations, that the Continental Congress could only do what the states allowed. The Articles were never the law of the land to the extent that the Constitution is. In essence, the United States as a nation did not come into existence until the Constitution began to function as the framework of the government.
Once the Constitution was in place, tension between the states and the federal government did not automatically cease. Many political thinkers believed that the states were really the supreme authority.
According to this viewpoint, states could nullify acts of the federal government that were disagreeable to them. One of the strongest proponents of this view was John C. Calhoun, senator from South Carolina. His chief opponent was Chief Justice John Marshall.
Calhoun's position, called states' rights, has persisted to the present. It was seriously undermined, however, by the American Civil War. The Preamble to the Constitution lists six purposes for which the new government of the United States of America was established.
These purposes, in general, are to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty.
In composing the Preamble the framers of the Constitution were making a statement unprecedented in the history of governments. In the past, apart from Great Britain, governments were not in the habit of issuing lists of objectives--they simply governed.
And government was usually an exercise of power over subjects, not citizens. The wording of the Preamble asserts that the people--not the states--are creating the government and are granting it certain powers for fixed purposes.
Two of these purposes are common to all governments: The other objectives arose from the political thought of the Enlightenment and from the experience of the United States in its relations with Britain.
The goal of union stemmed in part from the failure of the Articles of Confederation. The insistence on justice and liberty was in part a reaction against the injustices perpetrated by king and Parliament prior to the American Revolution.
The general welfare phrase was new and provided a source of controversy. Like the other objectives, its purpose was to serve the common good, but its meaning has always been subject to dispute. No sooner was the Constitution ratified than James Madison and Thomas Jefferson began to disagree with Alexander Hamilton on the meaning of the term general welfare in both the Preamble and in Article 1, section 8.
For Madison and Jefferson the term was a fairly empty one, referring to all the powers listed in section 8. To Hamilton it seemed an open invitation to unlimited governmental authority, since almost anything the government wanted to do could be categorized as belonging to the general welfare.
It is not likely that the phrase promote the general welfare was intended to refer either to limited or unlimited powers of government. If the phrase is to make sense, it must have a significance of its own on a level with the other five objectives.
It is probable that its meaning was best stated by Abraham Lincoln in his "Fragment on Government" in Among them are building roads and highways, canals, airports, and port facilities. Supporting public schools is another. While the Preamble is remarkable for what it says, it is more so for what it fails to say.
There is no reference in it to government operation of the economy. For the first time in history this was specifically excluded as a government function.The Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis.
Constitution for the United States of America. Article. I. SECTION. 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Sen-ate and House of Representatives. CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES. Part One.
Part Three. Part Four: UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT, Part One. Author: William Kehen, PhD.
Columbia University. The federal government of the United States was created by the Constitution, which went into operation in when the first Congress convened and George Washington took the oath of office as president.
The Second Amendment (Amendment II) to the United States Constitution protects the right of the people to keep and bear arms and was adopted on December 15, as part of the Bill of Rights.
The Supreme Court ruled in the Heller decision that the right belongs to individuals in their homes for self-defense.
while also ruling that the right is not unlimited and does not preclude the. THE MAKING OF THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION. Table of Contents I. Discontent with the Articles of Confederation II.
The Constitutional Convention. These three documents, known collectively as the Charters of Freedom, have secured the rights of the American people for more than two and a quarter centuries and are considered instrumental to the founding and philosophy of the United States.