Formed in and known as the Dies Committee for Rep.
Formed in and known as the Dies Committee for Rep. The Committee soon focused on Communism, beginning with an investigation into Communists in the Federal Theatre Project in This investigation ultimately resulted in Hiss's trial and conviction for perjury, and convinced many of the usefulness of congressional committees for uncovering Communist subversion.
HUAC achieved its greatest fame and notoriety with its investigation into the Hollywood film industry. In Octoberthe Committee began to subpoena screenwriters, directors, and other movie industry professionals to testify about their known or suspected membership in the Communist Party, association with its members, or support of its beliefs.
These men, who became known as the " Hollywood Ten ", cited the First Amendment 's guarantee of free speech and free assembly, which they believed legally protected them from being required to answer the Committee's questions. This tactic failed, and the ten were sentenced to prison for contempt of Congress.
Two of the ten were sentenced to six months, the rest to a year. In the future, witnesses in the entertainment industries and otherwise who were determined not to cooperate with the Committee would claim their Fifth Amendment protection against self-incrimination.
While this usually protected them from a contempt of Congress citation, it was considered grounds for dismissal by many government and private industry employers. The legal requirements for Fifth Amendment protection were such that a person could not testify about his own association with the Communist Party and then refuse to "name names" of colleagues with Communist affiliations.
This committee spent a year investigating Owen Lattimore and other members of the Institute of Pacific Relations. As had been done numerous times before, the collection of scholars and diplomats associated with Lattimore the so-called China Hands were accused of "losing China," and while some evidence of pro-communist attitudes was found, there was nothing to support McCarran's accusation that Lattimore was "a conscious and articulate instrument of the Soviet conspiracy".
Lattimore was charged with perjuring himself before the SISS in After many of the charges were rejected by a Federal Judge and one of the witnesses confessed to perjury, the case was dropped in McCarthy first examined allegations of Communist influence in the Voice of Americaand then turned to the overseas library program of the State Department.
Card catalogs of these libraries were searched for works by authors McCarthy deemed inappropriate.
McCarthy then recited the list of supposedly pro-communist authors before his subcommittee and the press. Yielding to the pressure, the State Department ordered its overseas librarians to remove from their shelves "material by any controversial persons, Communists, fellow travelersetc.
McCarthy garnered some headlines with stories of a dangerous spy ring among the Army researchers, but ultimately nothing came of this investigation. Army dentist who had been promoted to the rank of major despite having refused to answer questions on an Army loyalty review form.
McCarthy's handling of this investigation, including a series of insults directed at a brigadier generalled to the Army—McCarthy hearingswith the Army and McCarthy trading charges and counter-charges for 36 days before a nationwide television audience. While the official outcome of the hearings was inconclusive, this exposure of McCarthy to the American public resulted in a sharp decline in his popularity.
This statement announced the firing of the Hollywood Ten and stated: In spite of the fact that hundreds would be denied employment, the studios, producers and other employers did not publicly admit that a blacklist existed.
At this time, private loyalty-review boards and anti-communist investigators began to appear to fill a growing demand among certain industries to certify that their employees were above reproach.
Companies that were concerned about the sensitivity of their business, or who, like the entertainment industry, felt particularly vulnerable to public opinion made use of these private services.
For a fee, these teams would investigate employees and question them about their politics and affiliations. At such hearings, the subject would usually not have a right to the presence of an attorney, and as with HUAC, the interviewee might be asked to defend himself against accusations without being allowed to cross-examine the accuser.
These agencies would keep cross-referenced lists of leftist organizations, publications, rallies, charities and the like, as well as lists of individuals who were known or suspected communists. Books such as Red Channels and newsletters such as Counterattack and Confidential Information were published to keep track of communist and leftist organizations and individuals.
Smith Act trials of communist party leaders Efforts to protect the United States from the perceived threat of Communist subversion were particularly enabled by several federal laws.
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The Alien Registration Act or Smith Act of made it a criminal offense for anyone to "knowingly or willfully advocate, abet, advise or teach the [ Hundreds of Communists and others were prosecuted under this law between and Ten defendants were given sentences of five years and the eleventh was sentenced to three years.
The defense attorneys were cited for contempt of court and given prison sentences. Many were convicted on the basis of testimony that was later admitted to be false.
However, the McCarran Act had no real effect beyond legal harassment. It required the registration of Communist organizations with the U. Attorney General and established the Subversive Activities Control Board to investigate possible Communist-action and Communist-front organizations so they could be required to register.The FIFA World Cup was the 21st FIFA World Cup, an international football tournament contested by the men's national teams of the member associations of FIFA once every four years.
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